Education and Training
During the last half-century, there has been a tremendous increase in mathematical knowledge. This is due to the collective influence of the growth of technology, the expansion of applications of mathematics, and the steady transition from an industrial to an information society. Consequently there is a need for a change in the goals of mathematics education for all students.
In order to meet the challenges of society, high school graduates must be mathematically literate. They must understand how mathematical concepts permeate daily life, business, industry, government, and our thinking about the environment. They must be able to use mathematics not just in their work lives, but also in their personal lives as citizens and consumers.
The Kindergarten to Grade 12 Mathematics curriculum is designed to support and promote the understanding that mathematics is
- a way of learning about our world
- part of our daily lives
- both quantitative and geometric in nature, with both aspects being equally important in the development of mathematical literacy.
In addition, mathematics and its study encourages the development of
- creative thinking
- logical thinking
- problem-solving skills
- data analysis skills
- co-operative interaction.
The goals that guide K – 12 mathematics have been influenced by the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989); and its updated version, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000). Additionally, the K – 12 mathematics curricula for Manitoba schools are being aligned with the Common Curriculum Framework for K – 9 Mathematics (2006) and Common Curriculum Framework for 10 – 12 Mathematics (2008) prepared by the Canadian provinces and territories under the Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education. Please see Manitoba Implementation Schedule for timelines for implementation.
The main goals of mathematics education are to prepare students to
- communicate and reason mathematically
- use mathematics confidently, accurately, and efficiently to solve problems
- appreciate and value mathematics
- make connections between mathematical knowledge and skills and their applications
- commit themselves to lifelong learning
- become mathematically literate citizens, using mathematics to contribute to society and to think critically about the world
Students of mathematics, regardless of age or experience, are challenged to do mathematics in contexts that are new to them. The K-12 Manitoba mathematics curriculum is organized by grade and the four strands of Patterns and Relations; Statistics and Probability; Shape and Space; Number. The integration of concepts, skills and procedures is critical to the success of students to achieve the goals of mathematics as outlined above.
The following chart illustrates the relationship between the strands, the mathematical processes and the nature of mathematics.
- Number (N)
- Patterns and Relations (PR)
- Variables and Equations
- Relations and Functions
- Shape and Space (SS)
- 3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes
- Statistics and Probability (SP)
- Data and Analysis
- Chance and Uncertainty
Change, Constancy, Dimension (size and scale), Number, Pattern, Quantity, Relationships, Shape, Uncertainty
Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes about Mathematics
Communication, Connections, Mental Mathematics and Estimation, Problem Solving, Reasoning, Technology Visualization